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Big Five

Big Five

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Quick Overview

In psychology, the Big Five personality traits are five broad domains or dimensions of personality that are used to describe human personality. The Big Five factors are openness,conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.


Related models: Belbin TeamrollenCore Quadrants van OfmanWhole Brain Model van HerrmannColor Theory of ChangeCultural Dimensions (Hofstede)Leary's RoseSix Thinking Hats (De Bono)Social Styles (Wilson)



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Background

 

In psychology, the Big Five personality traits are five broad domains or dimensions of personality that are used to describe human personality. The Big Five factors are openness,conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.

The Big five has been preferably used, since it is able to measure different traits in personality without overlapping. During studies, the Big Five personality traits show consistency in interviews, self-descriptions and when observed. Acronyms commonly used to refer to the five traits collectively are OCEAN, NEOAC, or CANOE. Beneath each factor, a cluster of correlated specific traits is found; for example, extraversion includes such related qualities as gregariousness, assertiveness, excitement seeking, warmth, activity, and positive emotions.

Related models: Belbin TeamrollenCore Quadrants van OfmanWhole Brain Model van HerrmannColor Theory of ChangeCultural Dimensions (Hofstede)Leary's RoseSix Thinking Hats (De Bono)Social Styles (Wilson)

 

 

The Model

 

The five factors

A summary of the factors of the Big Five and their constituent traits:

  • Openness to experience – (inventive/curious vs. consistent/cautious). Appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, curiosity, and variety of experience. Openness reflects the degree of intellectual curiosity, creativity and a preference for novelty and variety a person has. It is also described as the extent to which a person is imaginative or independent, and depicts a personal preference for a variety of activities over a strict routine. Some disagreement remains about how to interpret the openness factor, which is sometimes called "intellect" rather than openness to experience.
  • Conscientiousness – (efficient/organized vs. easy-going/careless). A tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement; planned rather than spontaneous behavior; organized, and dependable.
  • Extraversion – (outgoing/energetic vs. solitary/reserved). Energy, positive emotions, surgency, assertiveness, sociability and the tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others, and talkativeness.
  • Agreeableness – (friendly/compassionate vs. cold/unkind). A tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others. It is also a measure of ones' trusting and helpful nature, and whether a person is generally well tempered or not.
  • Neuroticism – (sensitive/nervous vs. secure/confident). The tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily, such as anger, anxiety, depression, or vulnerability. Neuroticism also refers to the degree of emotional stability and impulse control, and is sometimes referred by its low pole – "emotional stability".

The Big Five Traits were discovered and defined by several independent sets of researchers. These researchers began by studying known personality traits and then factor-analyzing hundreds of measures of these traits (in self-report and questionnaire data, peer ratings, and objective measures from experimental settings) in order to find the underlying factors of personality. The Big five personality traits was the model to comprehend the relationship between personality and academic behaviors.

The initial model was advanced by Ernest Tupes and Raymond Christal in 1961 but failed to reach an academic audience until the 1980s. In 1990, J.M. Digman advanced his five factor model of personality, which Lewis Goldberg extended to the highest level of organization. These five overarching domains have been found to contain and subsume most known personality traits and are assumed to represent the basic structure behind all personality traits. These five factors provide a rich conceptual framework for integrating all the research findings and theory in personality psychology. The Big Five traits are also referred to as the "Five Factor Model" or FFM and as the Global Factors of personality.

Related models:

-   Belbin Teamrollen;

 -   Core Quadrants van Ofman;

 -   Whole Brain Model van Herrmann;

 -   Color Theory of Change;

 -   Cultural Dimensions (Hofstede);-

 -   Leary's Rose;

-   Six Thinking Hats (De Bono);

-   Social Styles (Wilson)

Source:

-    Wikipedia.com