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Herzberg Factors

Herzberg Factors

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Quick Overview

Herzberg distinguishes between two groups of factors that play a role in motivation and job satisfaction: satisfiers and dissatisfiers also known as ‘hygiene-factors’.


Related Models: Drama TriangleTypology of CommunicationPrinciples of Effective LeadershipTeam BuildingPillars of CommitmentTypology of Knowledge WorkersCoachingHerzberg FactorsCoaching ArtsFace-to-Face CommunicationTrust EquationFormula of Trust

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Herzberg Factors

 

Origin

Frederick Irving Herzberg (17 April 1923 – 19 January 2000) was an American psychologist known for ‘Job enrichment’; otherwise known as vertical task extension and the ‘Motivator-Hygiene theory’.

Frederick Herzberg interviewed 203 American accountants & engineers. The test persons were asked when they felt unusually good or bad about their current or present job. They were also asked to provide reasons why and to describe the sequence of events that led to the positive or negative feeling.


The level of preparation, plus the ‘critical incident’ aspect and the depth of attention and analysis paid to the project in 1959 turned the Herzberg’s work into a powerful and highly respected study.    

Related Models: Drama TriangleTypology of CommunicationPrinciples of Effective LeadershipTeam BuildingPillars of CommitmentTypology of Knowledge WorkersCoachingHerzberg FactorsCoaching ArtsFace-to-Face CommunicationTrust EquationFormula of Trust

 

The Model

Herzberg distinguishes between two groups of factors that play a role in motivation and job satisfaction: satisfiers and dissatisfiers also known as ‘hygiene-factors’.     

Satisfiers (motivating factors):

-      Development;

-      Recognition and appreciation;

-      Success and creativity;

-      Delivering performance and achieving goals.

 

Dissatisfiers ('hygiene factors’):

-      Compensation;

-      Labor conditions;

-      Labor relations;

-      Organizational policy.

 

Satisfiers are factors related to the doing of the job, while dissatisfiers are factors that define the context of the job.

Satisfiers can contribute directly to job satisfaction. Without satisfiers a worker becomes neutral (but not dissatisfied). Dissatisfiers, on the other hand, can contribute to job dissatisfaction if not changed.  If all these factors are present, a neutral situation is created (but no satisfaction).

It is interesting to note that satisfiers have to do with the core of the job whereas the dissatisfiers make up part of the job environment. Herzberg’s approach was met with fundamental opposition from the scientific community. Herzberg’s methodology when creating the classification of satisfiers and dissatisfiers was said to be one sided and artificial. This can only be confirmed if Herzberg’s methodology is looked into. Other methods provide surprising ‘shifts’ of the domain; satisfiers can end up being dissatisfiers and the other way around (Vinke, 2001). According to Herzberg’s, employees can only be motivated by ‘drilling’ satisfiers. Employees can be motivated through development, appreciation, being successful, and achieving goals. Extra compensation or improved labor conditions do not lead to increased motivation and satisfaction. These measures actually strongly encourage job dissatisfaction.

 

What can you do with it?

According to the motivation-hygiene-theory management must not only provide hygiene factors in order to prevent employee job dissatisfaction, but also factors that allow employees to be satisfied with the nature of the work as well as the work itself.

Herzberg proposed that task enrichment is necessary for intrinsic motivation, and that it becomes a continual process. According to Herzberg:

-      The work has to be challenging enough to fully make use of the employees’ capabilities;

-      Employees that continue to improve must be given increasing responsibility;

-      If the job doesn’t allow the employee to fully use their capacities, the company should consider automating the task or replacing the employee with a lower level worker.

Herzberg’s theory has been widely read and, despite its weaknesses, still continues to add value by recognizing that the true motivation comes from within a person and not from Kita factors. (Frans, 2008)

Good luck motivating!

 

Related Models: 

-   Drama Triangle

-   Typology of Communication

-   Principles of Effective Leadership

-   Team Building

-   Pillars of Commitment

-   Typology of Knowledge Workers

-   Coaching

-   Herzberg Factors

-   Coaching Arts

-   Face-to-Face Communication

-   Trust Equation

-   Formula of Trust

 

 

Sources:

-       Herzberg, F., Mausner, B. & Snyderman, B.B. 1959, The Motivation to Work. John Wiley. New York