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Knowledge Conversion

Knowledge Conversion

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Quick Overview

This model was developed by Nonaka and Tackeuchi. They provided four learning processes for transferring and gaining knowledge. The underlying idea of Nonaka and Takeuchi is that Western managers should be more open to staff’s images, metaphors, subjective insights, experiences and intuitions in their learning process. They should give up the idea that learning exists of education and training only.


Related models: DMAICLEANDeming CircleDecision MakingKnowledge DefinitionKnowledge Value ChainKnowledge ConversionLearn and Remember;

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Details

Knowledge Conversion

 

Background

This model was developed by Nonaka and Tackeuchi. They provided four learning processes for transferring and gaining knowledge. The underlying idea of Nonaka and Takeuchi is that Western managers should be more open to staff’s images, metaphors, subjective insights, experiences and intuitions in their learning process. They should give up the idea that learning exists of education and training only.

Related models: DMAICLEANDeming CircleDecision MakingKnowledge DefinitionKnowledge Value ChainKnowledge ConversionLearn and Remember;

 

The model

Knowledge is created through interaction between tacit and/or explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge is individual, hasty and intangible. Explicit knowledge is in one way or the other described or laid down in symbols. It is tangible and can be held.

 

 

This leads to four types of knowledge conversion:

      socialisation – from tacit knowledge to tacit knowledge

      externalisation – from tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge

      internalisation – from explicit knowledge to tacit knowledge

      combination – from explicit knowledge to explicit knowledge.

Socialisation

Socialisation is about transferring individual knowledge from one person to another; for instance by joining an expert and seeing as well as experiencing how this expert proceeds. By doing things yourself you will gain experience and develop skills whereby the expert can supervise matters or confirm ‘on the spot’.

Externalisation

Externalisation is a process in which tacit knowledge is expressed in explicit terms using metaphors, analogies, concepts, hypotheses and models. Such is possible by eliciting knowledge available with the expert. Examples include preparing a protocol or step-by-step plan based on an interview with the expert who used to do things off the cuff. In this way the expert’s tacit knowledge becomes tangible and available for other people.

Internalisation

The Internalisation process allows the explicit knowledge to become part of the individual knowledge. The expression ‘learning by doing’ is used frequently in the enterprising world. Obviously a good example is the explicit description of a recipe including the ingredients. Ask ten people to prepare this recipe and you will end up with ten different dishes. Herman den Blijker (famous Dutch chef) even became a TV chef thanks to this formula. Now there’s a beautiful link with the knowledge definition: each chef is more familiar with certain ingredients (information), has prepared a certain dish more or less often (experience), handles stress slightly differently (skill) and presents a boring or challenging plate (attitude). While making the dish one will run against problems that must be solved. These situations have not been described beforehand and will not be described afterwards. They have become the chef’s tacit knowledge.

Combination

Combination is a process in which terms are joined together. A school example is to write your thesis. You pick a few models, and you combine them. And sometimes you get ten out of ten … J

One specific example of combining two models is the team development model and the leadership styles model. This combination helps you gain insight into which leadership style seems the most opportune for which mature phase of a team.

 

How to use it

First of all use it for yourself. As mentioned in the knowledge value chain you can zoom specifically into how you wish to lift up your own knowledge level. Write down clearly and specifically how you wish to gain certain knowledge in the model. Focussing too much on one of the quadrants is usually a bad thing. Of course the outcome is a nice way of getting your training budget out of your executive. At least use it for yourself as an incentive.

If you are initiating a project or programme, make sure you discuss how as a team you will make sure the right knowledge reaches the right people. Create accompanying sessions for your talents, organise soapbox sessions to share knowledge. And never forget about the significance of having a sound filing system for physical documents. At least be perfectly aware of this. These examples are but a drop in the ocean of all the sharing possibilities that exist and which you can come up with along with your creative team.

Are you familiar with the ‘SPOK’ in your team? The ‘Single Point of Knowledge’ is also referred to as the ‘SPOF’: The ‘Single Point of Failure’. Because knowledge is strength rather than power these people usually do not wish to be the only ones having specific knowledge. It involves stress and restrictions while sharing this knowledge in fact brings peace and options. Ask the SPOK, using the different knowledge management models, to come up with a suggestion as to stop being the SPOK.

And of course invest in organisational development.

 

We wish you the very best of luck and much knowledge conversion!

 

Related models: 

-   DMAIC

-   LEAN

-   Deming Circle

-   Decision Making

-   Knowledge Definition

-   Knowledge Value Chain

-   Knowledge Conversion

-   Learn and Remember;

 

 

Sources:

       Ikujiro Nonaka en Hirotaka Takeuchi (1995), The Knowledge-Creating Company.

 

The product:

- Cartoon, full colour, 8000-6000 pixels

- Description, full colour, pdf