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This model categorises the steering parameters based on 6 aspects:

  •        Budget

  •        Organisation

  •        Quality

  •        Information

  •        Time

  •        Other: i.e. Risk.


Related models: Time Management MatrixProjectmanager RadiusForce Field AnalysisSteering ParametersDevils TriangleSMARTBARTStakeholder Salience Model



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Steering Parameters (BOQITO)



This model is also referred to as TBQIO or BOQITO. In his book, however, Peter Markensteijn writes about the ‘ribs’ of project management and the PM3 model. BOQIT is one of those ribs. We, at Models2use, always add the Risk aspect to end up with BOQIT+R. PM3 stands for Peter Markensteijn’s Project Management PiraMid.

Related models: Time Management MatrixProjectmanager RadiusForce Field AnalysisSteering ParametersDevils TriangleSMARTBARTStakeholder Salience Model



The model

This model categorises the steering parameters based on 6 aspects:






      Other: i.e. Risk.



All activities carried out must be assessed. The total costs of these activities must be transparent, explicable and reliable. Checks must be carried out continuously to verify whether budget is underspent or perhaps overrun. This relates to all costs incurred within a certain project: direct costs such as man-hours, indirect costs including environment management and out of pocket costs for tenders, expertise take-on or product acquisition. The total costs lead to the overall project budget.

Parameter budget may also include income for projects and programmes. Usually for income specific assessments are made in the form of a business case or redemption deed. Also, steering activities towards income are usually separated from the project cost management. Especially in ICT cases, the income phase will only begin upon product delivery. By then the project is usually already undone.



Project organisation

This parameter gives substance to the tasks, authorities and responsibilities of the project members and parties involved. It should be made clear as to who will be performing which tasks, the mandate at hand, the granted space to move and who is responsible for what exactly. It is about the tasks and responsibilities within project or programme.


Project progress and results must be accounted for. Steering groups and project boards must be called into existence. People must be installed officially to ensure everyone is perfectly familiar with his role. Also, one must decide on how to tune matters between project, clients and other parties involved.


In the project periphery you will be dealing with many parties interested or parties whom you depend on. Examples include the works council, interest groups, line departments and users. In the Force Field Analysis these people are usually referred to as the “No Sayers”. Make sure you have sound agreements with these groups, define what it takes to keep them satisfied and decide on how they are participating in the organisation of your project implementation.



Prior to the project commencement the wishes and requirements must be known and laid down. Depth thereof partly depends on the way in which the project is carried out. In case of an iterative development process with several increments or an agile approach, outlining the wishes and requirements suffices. In case of a classical waterfall method, full clarity matters before stepping into the next stage.



Information is indispensable in realising products and also for proper steering and good control. Define clearly which information is to be shared with whom, how and how frequently. Which consultative bodies exist and who is in them, what are their roles and what is the input and output of the deliberation in question. Define reporting lines, contents, frequency and process flow of the reports.



In the early years project-based activities were tuned particularly to making the timelines. Activities carried out within a project must be divided into bite-size chunks, set out in time and mapped in terms of dependencies. The result of one activity always leads to a product or partial product. Planning must meet the SMART requirements. On implementing activities progress must be monitored at all times.


Other like Risks

Proper control and management need proper risk analysis. Risks can be analysed in different ways. The most common aspects of risk analysis are the following:

      The risk itself

      Assessing the likelihood of the risk occurring

      Assessing the impact of the risk should it occur

      Consequence in terms of time, money or quality should the risk occur

      The strategy for controlling the risk (accept, avoid, shift, mitigate)

      Measures to prevent the risk.

The more mature variant also involves the EMV (Expected Monetary Value). This indicates the costs should the risk occur (as shown in the above). This risk is multiplied with the likelihood of the risk occurring. It also indicates the costs required to control the risk. Both sums are weighted against each other on the basis of which a choice is made. The costs following from the choice made are explicitly included as the risk budget. This is quite different from the contingency budget. The latter is a financial scope for taking measures in case of unexpected events only requiring information and reports on full utilisation thereof. No heavy procedures are required for using this budget (justification afterwards).



Another model is the so-called “Devil’s Triangle”, steering towards Time, Money and Quality.

Another strongly related model is the “Devil’s Square”. Add to this the scope parameter as the steering parameter.


How to use it

Select your steering parameters

First of all it is very important to select your steering parameters. Take a decision and stick to it. Previously we mentioned a few variants from which you may choose. Discuss matters with your client.


Prioritise your steering parameters

Decide together with the client on the adage under which your project or programme is to be carried out. It is up to the client to decide on the most important parameters. Do not let the client brush you off with “they are all equally important” or you must stick to timing and budget and provide what I asked you to...”  A good client will take his responsibility and dare to make a choice. Obviously this choice does give you the freedom not to meet one of the parameters. But it does steer the interventions expected from you being the project manager. Discussions about timelines at the start of the year 2000 or the launching of the EURO are out of the question. In implementing a new traffic control system at Schiphol Airport quality is top priority: timely implementation is inferior to impeccable implementation.

Launch control sessions

No matter which steering parameters you choose, make sure you design a sound control mechanism. The state of affairs must be transparent, unequivocal and comprehensible to all. Make sure you receive reports and information at an optimal frequency. Separate explicitly factual details and value judgements.

Use the right tooling

Your plan should include which tooling you intend to use to support control sessions for the selected parameters. For timelines tools and methods exist such as the MS Project/Gantt charts, critical path analyses, MoSCoW (prioritising requirements and wishes) and QSMSLiM (calculate optimal turnaround time and occupation of resources). Also, you may use the ‘cigar box’. As long as you make clear which tooling you are using, why, when and for whom.

When mapping the organisation you may use stakeholder management models and force field analyses.


In making authorities and responsibilities explicit you may use the so-called RACIA matrix. RACIA stands for:






The matrix consists of:

      A horizontal axis with the names of the people, groups or functional roles

      A vertical axis with the products, activities or processes to be delivered.

The cells indicate the responsibility.



Bo honest and objective

Usually the organisational pressure feeds the ‘rosy’ picture of the situation. Stay far away from it. Remarks like “you must save 10% and still deliver the same product” will eventually involve unhappy clients, users and project managers. Of course you must continue to make the implementation process more efficient but this is not the primary objective of your project: stick to your plan! If budget savings are required you should hold your client responsible. For it is he who must decide on the wishes and requirements that need no further detailing. Using the MoSCoW method might help out. Bringing back timelines will affect the efficiency of your team. Having short timelines usually means more resources at the same time within a short period of time. Streamlining, managing, informing and being informed will be much more complicated. To assess these effects you might for instance use QSMSLiM.

Good luck, take the wheel and check your dashboard meters on a regular basis.


Related models: 

-   Time Management Matrix

-   Projectmanager Radius

-   Force Field Analysis

-   Steering Parameters

-   Devils Triangle


-   BART

-   Stakeholder Salience Model







The product:

- Cartoon, full colour, 8000-6000 pixels

- Description, full colour, pdf